Also the UN Convention Against Torture , which also applies to medical personnel in addition to law enforcement officers , military personnel , politicians , and other persons acting in an official capacity , prohibits the use of torture under any circumstance. A classic example of this is the Lake Alice, New Zealand atrocity which occurred in the early s. Asserted instances[ edit ] Between and , Japanese medical personnel who were part of Unit participated in the torture killings of as many as 10, Chinese, Russian, American and other prisoners as well as Allied POWs during the second Sino-Japanese War. To date, no state licensing boards or professional associations have investigated — or recognized, in some cases — abusive conduct by individual members of their professions. The World Health Organization has called for a ban on unmodified ECT, and states no form of it should be used on children. An example of this impunity is found in the Abu Ghraib prison torture and prisoner scandal as well as documented by Amnesty International.
There have been numerous claims that electroconvulsive therapy and prefrontal lobotomies and similar psychiatric treatments have sometimes been performed not in the patient's best interests, but rather as punishment for misbehaviour or to otherwise make the patient easier to manage. The Declaration of Geneva requires medical practitioners to state "[I, the medical practitioner] will maintain the utmost respect for human life from its beginning even under threat and I will not use my medical knowledge contrary to the laws of humanity. Under Article 2 2 of the Convention, it states that "No exceptional circumstances whatsoever, whether a state of war or a threat of war, internal political instability or any other public emergency , may be invoked as a justification of torture. In particular, Josef Mengele 's experiments on prisoners at Auschwitz earned him the nicknames "the Angel of Death" and "Dr. Carothers , British colonial Kenyan psychiatrist, has been implicated by some recent academic historians in designing interrogation of Mau Mau prisoners. The World Medical Association Declaration of Tokyo  makes a number of specific statements against torture, including "The doctor shall not countenance, condone or participate in the practice of torture". Also the UN Convention Against Torture , which also applies to medical personnel in addition to law enforcement officers , military personnel , politicians , and other persons acting in an official capacity , prohibits the use of torture under any circumstance. This higher standard is reflected in the principles of beneficence, non-maleficence above all do no harm , autonomy, justice, dignity and informed consent and these are not covered comprehensively by the UN Convention Against Torture. Norway and New Zealand have since begun paying reparations to patients who suffered such treatments. However, the same sources allege that Allawi had abandoned his medical education at that point and his medical degree "was conferred upon him by the Baath party. In , Howard S Schneider, a Jacksonville, Florida pediatric dentist not to be confused with Howard W Schneider, a pediatric dentist practicing in New York , was accused of sadistically torturing patients as young as 2. The Irish government complained to the European Commission for Human Rights , who found Britain guilty of torture; however the higher European Court of Human Rights ruled that the British government's actions were "inhuman and degrading but did not constitute torture". To date, no state licensing boards or professional associations have investigated — or recognized, in some cases — abusive conduct by individual members of their professions. Among other things, health professionals are accused of: A study called " The Aversion Project " found that gay conscripts in the South African Defence Forces SADF during the apartheid era had been forced to submit to "curing" their homosexuality, both by electroshock therapies and by botched sex changes. An example of this impunity is found in the Abu Ghraib prison torture and prisoner scandal as well as documented by Amnesty International. A classic example of this is the Lake Alice, New Zealand atrocity which occurred in the early s. The Hippocratic Oath makes explicit statements against deliberate harm not in the patient's best interests. These statements are often translated as "I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgment" and "to never deliberately do harm to anyone, for anyone else's interest. There remain gaps in regulation relating to medical torture in many countries: It is up to state, provincial, and national bodies to enforce the standards in the document. A higher standard of behaviour is expected of health professionals yet the UN Principles of Medical Ethics are not enforceable when governments are complicit in violations. Asserted instances[ edit ] Between and , Japanese medical personnel who were part of Unit participated in the torture killings of as many as 10, Chinese, Russian, American and other prisoners as well as Allied POWs during the second Sino-Japanese War. Government sponsored torture and organized violence, with the complicity and or participation of health personnel, is internationally prohibited yet these violations occur with impunity in a significant amount of cases. According to some accounts, medical staff was involved in torture during executions. In , after years of denial, the American Psychological Association finally recognized that psychologists had engaged in torture.
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