Results Of mothers, The information of the mother-child pair of last born child within three years prior to the survey was included in the study. More recently, FCHVs have been engaged in Community Based Newborn Care Package CB-NCP , which aims to promote essential and immediate care to newborns and life saving care to those with special needs low birth weight, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, infection [ 14 ]. This survey used two stage cluster sampling based on the enumeration areas and households samples. In the first stage, enumeration areas were selected. This is particularly important in resource-poor countries and those with high prevalence of communicable disease, as early initiation of breastfeeding is associated with protection against diarrhea, and also increases the likelihood of longer duration of exclusive breastfeeding, which helps with pregnancy-spacing, and saves the mothers resources in terms of money spent on formula and the long terms health effects of breastfeeding such as cognitive advantage [ 5 ].
In addition, the use of antenatal care ANC has also been found to be positively associated with timely initiation of breastfeeding [ 6 , 16 , 22 ]. A total of enumeration areas Rural; Urban were selected. Responses were recorded in number of hours or days. The global initiative recommends 10 steps of successful breastfeeding; of which the first four steps are directly linked to early initiation [ 10 ]. Maternal reported occupation was re-categorised into not working not working and no specific occupation , agriculture paid and unpaid agricultural work and paid work office, business, clerical, manual based on previously published literature [ 27 ]. Six in every ten Statistical analysis The rate of early initiation of breastfeeding and distribution by different independent variables was reported as percentage. The objective of this study was to determine the rate and the determinants of early initiation of breastfeeding in Nepal using the NDHS dataset. Around the world, early initiation of breastfeeding, breastfeeding within one hour of birth, has been reported to reduce neonatal mortality by Participants provided written consent or thumb print for the study. Eastern, Central, Western, Mid-western and Far-western region. Ethnicity was recorded as advantaged Brahmins, Chhetris, Thakuris and Sanyashi, Gurung, Newar , disadvantaged Janjatis indigenous castes and disadvantaged Dalits. The findings suggest the need of breastfeeding promotion programs among the mothers who are less educated, and not working. The analysis accounted for the sample design and sample weight using Complex Sample Analysis method [ 32 ]. More recently, FCHVs have been engaged in Community Based Newborn Care Package CB-NCP , which aims to promote essential and immediate care to newborns and life saving care to those with special needs low birth weight, birth asphyxia, hypothermia, infection [ 14 ]. Methods This study used the data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey , which is a nationally representative study [ 25 ]. The result is that the residents of the Far and Mid -western regions are highly marginalised from the reach of social services, such as water and sanitation infrastructure, with the vast majority found to live in poverty, and experiencing some form of food insecurity [ 25 , 29 ]. The data was made publicly available after removing personal identifiers. Place of delivery was categorized as Health facility Sub-Health post, Health post, Primary health care centre, and private health facilities ; and home. Colostrum contains a number of immunoglobulin and nutritious factors which protect the newborn from short and long term illnesses [ 1 ]. Notably, the Female Community Health Volunteers FCHVs , a network of women who are trained to assist and counsel community members, particularly mothers, on pregnancy, perinatal, and newborn health practices, play an essential role in the delivery strategy of infant and young feeding interventions in Nepal [ 13 ]. For administrative purposes, Nepal is divided into five regions, namely: Four in every ten mothers were illiterate. Conclusions Results suggest that two thirds of children in Nepal were breastfed within the first hour after birth. At the community level, there are a number of health programs which have promoted the timely initiation and exclusive breastfeeding based on the National Nutrition Policy [ 12 ]. Independent variables The independent variables used in this study were selected based on the previous studies in other countries [ 20 ] and available data on the NDHS [ 25 , 26 ].
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