X effect sex

To further complicate matters, sexual and intragenomic conflict may exacerbate one another and thereby further fuel sex chromosome change. Different magnitudes and foci of conflict offer potential explanations for lineage-specific variation in sex chromosome evolution and answer long-standing questions as to why some sex chromosomes are remarkably stable, whereas others show rapid rates of evolutionary change. There is substantial empirical evidence supporting at least some of this theory Table 1 , and references therein , although there remains something of a disconnect between molecular genetic and phenotypic findings Dean and Mank Unlike the autosomes, because the sex chromosomes are unevenly transmitted between males and females and are also unevenly distributed between the sexes Fig. Abstract Intralocus sexual conflict and intragenomic conflict both affect sex chromosome evolution and can in extreme cases even cause the complete turnover of sex chromosomes.

X effect sex


Additionally, established sex chromosomes often become the focus of heightened conflict. There is substantial empirical evidence supporting at least some of this theory Table 1 , and references therein , although there remains something of a disconnect between molecular genetic and phenotypic findings Dean and Mank All this theory predicts that although the sex chromosomes generally represent a small proportion of the genome, they should play a disproportionately large role in sexual conflict, sexual dimorphism, and sexual selection. The inherent differences in sex-specific selection on the sex chromosomes themselves, and between the sex chromosomes and the autosomes, form the basis of a large and often compelling body of evolutionary theory that predicts the ways that intralocus sexual conflict will arise, play out, and in some cases potentially be resolved. Unlike the autosomes, because the sex chromosomes are unevenly transmitted between males and females and are also unevenly distributed between the sexes Fig. Abstract Intralocus sexual conflict and intragenomic conflict both affect sex chromosome evolution and can in extreme cases even cause the complete turnover of sex chromosomes. Different magnitudes and foci of conflict offer potential explanations for lineage-specific variation in sex chromosome evolution and answer long-standing questions as to why some sex chromosomes are remarkably stable, whereas others show rapid rates of evolutionary change. Not only do they shape sex chromosome and genome evolution, but in some cases, they also have the power to cause complete turnover of sex chromosomes. To further complicate matters, sexual and intragenomic conflict may exacerbate one another and thereby further fuel sex chromosome change. This creates a tangled relationship between sex chromosomes and conflict with respect to cause and effect. Sex chromosomes are therefore hot spots for two specific types of conflict: These conflicts act in distinct but complementary ways. Compared to the autosomes, the unique inheritance pattern of the sex chromosomes is often thought to intensify evolutionary conflict Rice ; Frank ; Jaenike This theory predicts that, under some conditions, the sex chromosomes are hot spots of intralocus sexual conflict Rice ; Albert and Otto ; Connallon and Clark , and in some cases alleles that harm one sex more than they benefit the other can still reach high frequencies if they are sex-linked Rice ; Dean et al.

X effect sex

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